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lithos [i^], ou, o( (v. infr. 11),

A. stone, Hom., etc.; esp. of the stones thrown by warriors, trêchus l., l. okrioeis, Il.5.308, 8.327; also, stonequoit, Od.8.190; helesthai . . ek gaias lithon A.Fr.199.4 ; of building- stones, lithoi basilikoi PSI4.423.28 , PCair.Zen.499.20 (both iii B.C.): prov., en panti gar toi skorpios phrourei lithôi S.Fr.37 ; lithon hepsein 'to lose one's labour', Ar.V.280; also of stupid persons, 'blockheads', lithoi Id.Nu.1202 , cf. Thgn.568, Pl.Hp.Ma.292d, Gal.9.656; l. tis, ou) dou/lh Herod.6.4; prosêgoreuthê dia to mê phronein l., of Niobe, Philem.101; hôsper lithon zên Pl.Grg.494a sq.; lithôi laleis prov. of anaisthêtoi, Macar.5.61.

2. stone as a substance, opp. wood, flesh, etc., epei ou sphi l. chrôs oude sidêros Il.4.510 ; laous de lithous poiêse turned into stone, petrified, 24.611, cf. Pl.Smp.198c; so [nêa] theinai l. Od.13.156 ; as an emblem of hard-heartedness, soi d' aiei kradiê stereôterê esti lithoio 23.103 , cf. Theoc.3.18.

II. lithos, hê, twice in Hom., Il.12.287, Od.19.494, just like masc., also in Theoc.7.26, Bion Fr.1.2: later mostly of some special stone, as the magnet is called Magnêtis l. by E.Fr.567 (but hê lithos simply in Democr.11k, Arist.Ph. 267a2, cf. v.l. de An.405a20); also Ludia l. by S.Fr.800 (but in B.Fr. 10 J. Ludia l. = touchstone); Hêrakleia l. by Pl.Ion533d, Epicur.Fr. 293; so of a touchstone, Pl.Grg.486d; hê diaphanês l. a piece of crystal used for a burning-glass, Ar.Nu.767, cf. Luc.Alex.21; chutê l. was perh. a kind of glass, and so an older name for hualos, Epin.1.8 (the same thing as the artêmata lithina chuta in Hdt.2.69; cf. tên hualon . . hosa te lithôn chuta eidê kaleitai Pl.Ti.61c ); l. = precious stone is fem. in Hp.Nat.Mul.99, IG22.1421.92, 1460.21, but masc. in Hdt.2.44, etc.; in the sense of marble mostly masc., leukos l. Id.4.87 (simply lithos 1.164 ), S.Fr.330 (leukoi l. is opp. petrinoi l. Supp.Epigr.4.446.8 (Didyma)); Parios l. Pi.N.4.81 , Hdt.3.57; Tainarios l. Str.8.5.7 ; l. Thasios, Aiguptios, etc., Paus.1.18.6, etc.; konchitês Id.1.44.6 ; konchuliatês X.An.3.4.10 ; but Paria l. Theoc.6.38 , Luc.Am.13; cf. luchnias, -itês; pôrinos l. tufa, Hdt.5.62.

2. collectively, pephuke lithos . . aphthonos, ex hou . . X.Vect.1.4.

III. grave-stone (fem.), Call.Epigr.8.1.

IV. at Athens, lithos, ho, was a name for various blocks of stone used for rostra or platforms, as,

1. the bêma (q.v.) of the Pnyx, Ar.Ach.683, Pax 680, Ec.87.

2. another in the agora used by the kêrukes, Plu.Sol.8; prob. the same as ho pratêr l., on which the auctioneer stood when selling slaves, etc., Poll.3.78, cf. 126.

3. an altar in the agora, at which the Thesmothetae, arbitrators, and witnesses took their oaths, Philoch.65, D.54.26 (restored from Harp. s.v. lithos), Arist.Ath.7.1, 55.5, Plu.Sol.25; cf. lithômotês.

4. two stones on which litigants stood in the Areopagus, Paus.1.28.5.

V. piece on a draughtboard, Alc.82, Theoc. 6.18, cf. grammê 111.1 : hence pron., panta lithon kinein Zen.5.63 (who explains it differently).

VI. Medic., stone in the bladder, calculus, Arist.HA519b19, Hp.Morb.4.55, al.

VII. Dia lithon omnunai, = Lat. Jovem lapidem jurare, Plb.3.25.6.

VIII. lithoi chalazês hail- stones, LXX Jo.10.11.

IX. l. ho ou l. the philosophers' stone, Zos. Alch.p.122 B.